Protein biosynthesis


Protein biosynthesis is the gene-directed synthesis of proteins in a living cell. It involves the protein-coding capacity of DNA first being converted to a mobile RNA template (transcription), and then the RNA template moving to a ribosome and being used to direct polypeptide assembly (translation). Proteins are one of the phenotypic expressions of genes. Since proteins, especially enzymes but also structural proteins, play a massive role in cell work, it is through protein biosynthesis that DNA exerts its control over the activities of the cell.

Protein biosynthesis is one of the core features in the central dogma of molecular biology, which describes the irreversible flow of genetic information from nucleic acids to protein.

For a detailed description of the processes involved in getting from DNA to protein, see the links below: